Tanzania: Social Sector Review

Front Cover
World Bank Publications, 1999 M01 1 - 203 pages
"Huge sums have been spent on water and sanitation services in Tanzania, but much of that investment is standing idle in the country, producing little or no water for the intended beneficiaries. A major question is whether any of the investment can be salvaged to reduce the burden of water gathering on the population." - From 'Tanzania: Social Sector Review' Tanzania's social indicators remain among the poorest in the world. This report describes the trends in the social sectors and analyzes the factors that influence these trends. These trends include the performance of the economy, government social sector spending and policy, household behavior and incomes, and demographic trends. Findings from the surveys and case studies are synthesized to provide a comprehensive picture of the demand for and supply of education, health, water and sanitation, nutrition, and family planning services. The report discusses the situation and trends in the social sector and identifies ways that the government, the private sector, and households can use their respective resources most effectively.
 

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Contents

Health and Fertility
134
Utilization of Family Planning Antenatal and Obstetric Services
135
HOUSEHOLD EXPENDITURES ON FAMILY PLANNING ANTENATAL AND OBSTETRIC SERVICES
138
Knowledge and Attitudes
139
Determinants of Contraceptive Use
140
SUPPLY OF FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Policy Framework
141
Organization and Structure of Family Planning Services
142
Problems of Quality and Implementation
144
PUBLIC EXPENDITURES ON AND UNIT COSTS OF FAMILY PLANNING
145
DISTRIBUTION OF PUBLIC SPENDING
147
CONCLUSION
148
NUTRITION OUTCOMES Child Nutritional Status
149
HOUSEHOLD NUTRIENT INPUTS Food Consumption and Energy Intakes
152
Breastfeeding
153
Supplementary Feeding of Infants
154
HOUSEHOLD EXPENDITURES ON FOOD
155
Food Production and Availability
156
Current Nutrition Interventions
157
CONCLUSION
159
WATER AND SANITATION UTILIZATION OF IMPROVED WATER SOURCES AND SANITATION FACILITIES Household Water Supply
160
Sanitation
162
HOUSEHOLD EXPENDITURES ON WATER
164
Willingness to Pay for Improved Water Supplies
166
POLICY FRAMEWORK FOR THE SUPPLY OF WATER AND SANITATION SERVICES
168
Government Expenditures Donor Expenditures Unit Costs
172
Cost Recovery and Water and Sanitation Tariffs
173
DISTRIBUTION OF BENEFITS
175
OPTIONS AND FIRST STEPS
176
THE SOCIAL SECTORS IN ZANZIBAR EDUCATION Outcomes and Enrollment
180
Household Expenditures on Education
183
Structure of the Education System
184
HEALTH Outcomes
186
Utilization
187
Household Expenditures on Health Care
188
Structure of the Health Care System
189
FAMILY PLANNING
190
NUTRITION
193
Utilization of Improved Water Sources and Sanitation Facilities
194
CONCLUSION
195
BIBLIOGRAPHY
197
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Page 141 - If you could go back to the time you did not have any children and could choose exactly the number of children to have in your whole life, how many would that be?
Page 10 - Message 1: Basic education is fundamental to Tanzania's efforts to speed up economic growth and distribute the benefits of growth widely throughout the society. Basic education is a catalyst that increases the impact of other investments in health, nutrition, family planning, and water. Message 2: Women in Tanzania are the primary agents of human capital investment. The litmus test of an effective social investment is whether it improves the ability of women to carry out this task. One of the recommendations...
Page 135 - In the analysis of the effects of high-risk fertility behaviour on child survival, a mother is classified as "too young" if she is less than 1 8 years of age, and "too old" if she is over 34 years of age at the time of delivery. A "short birth interval" is defined as a birth occurring less than 24 months after the previous birth, and a child is of "high birth order...
Page 110 - African countries, the average life expectancy at birth is estimated at 47 years, seven years less than it would have been in the absence of AIDS.
Page 38 - However, this report is not intended to be a comprehensive review of all aspects of each element within the social sectors.
Page 167 - Developing Sustainable Community Water Systems" US$3,150.00 6 Months Dr. AS Kauzeni is Director of the Institute of Resource Assessment at the University of Dar Es Salaam. In January 1989, ADF published a document entitled, "Developing Sustainable Community Water Supply Systems.
Page 163 - Stage 1 involves the removal of excreta and wastewater from the household's living space. In the course of solving their own individual sanitation problems, households often impose costs on their neighbors by discharging untreated human wastes and wastewater from their property onto streets and other public property. This creates the setting for Stage 2: neighborhood collection of household wastewater.
Page 43 - Data for thirteen African countries between 1975 and 1985 show that a 10 percent increase in female literacy rates reduced child mortality by 10 percent, whereas changes in male literacy had little influence.
Page 10 - Review is a product of the Government of Tanzania and The World Bank, plus experts and other interested parties from Tanzania, NGOs, and other bilateral and multilateral donors.
Page 10 - UN United Nations UNDP United Nations Development Program UNFPA United Nations Population Fund UNICEF United Nations Children's Fund UNIFEM United Nations Development Fund for Women...

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